Lyttelton Port of Christchurch LPC has experienced many large earthquakes and thousands of aftershocks during the Canterbury Earthquake sequence. Consequently, LPC and their consultants and contractors have a very clear understanding of Performance Based Design as they have observed the actual performance of their land and structures through a wide range of earthquake magnitudes. The Oil Berth suffered extensive damage in the Canterbury Earthquake sequence. A replacement wharf has been designed which will replace the existing wharf.
This paper describes the performance-based design of the replacement wharf, including the following key aspects:. The existing wharf structure comprises a wharf supported on timber piles, pipelines, a reinforced concrete seawall, mooring bollards and thrust blocks.
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Fender blocks are supported on four mm diameter steel encased concrete piles. A new oil wharf, The proposed wharf has a 0. The site is situated on reclaimed land that overlies harbour deposits consisting of soft to stiff silts with medium dense to very dense sands from approximately 40 m depth and volcanic boulders and rock at approximately 50 m depth. The reclamation process involved construction of a breakwater by end dumping quarried basalt gravel on top of the natural marine deposits.
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Progressive slope failures were reported during construction. Reclamation of land behind the breakwater was then carried out with hydraulic fill dredged from the harbour bed. As such the wharf and associated breakwater slope must be designed to provide the following performance requirements:. At the Oil Berth site there are many geotechnical challenges in achieving these requirements, including weak natural soils, potentially variable fill material, poor existing slope performance and an increase in slope height through dredging.
In addition the existing Oil Berth must be kept operational during construction. Ground motion selection and analysis was desired to take advantage of the recorded rock and soft soil time histories available from the Canterbury earthquakes. The selected ground motions are summarised in Table 2.
Both the East-West and North-South components of the ground motions were used. Non-linear site response analysis to determine the appropriate design spectra for seismic assessment of the wharf structure.
Course- Seismic Design of Piers amd Wharves
Site response analysis therefore enabled a reduction in seismic demand from NZS Dynamic non-linear deformation analysis NDA was undertaken to assess lateral loadings on the piles, soil-structure interaction and the pile pinning effects on the breakwater slope. Inertial loading from the wharf superstructure and kinematic loading caused by lateral ground deformations was considered simultaneously.
The third and fourth tasks are described in more detail in the following sections. The dynamic response of soil deposits beneath a site has a significant influence on the ground motion hazard of engineered structures. These effects depend on the ground profile, the physical characteristics of each soil layer and the strength and direction of shaking.
The input from the calibration model was able to match the recorded soft soil ground motions at GNS seismograph station LPOC over a range of earthquake sizes. Equivalent linear methods e. This Standard uses displacement-based design methods to establish guidelines for the design of piers and wharves to withstand the effects of earthquakes. This course will help engineers and other practitioners understand the history of codes and standards, the fundamentals of seismic design, the background of ASCE provisions, and the practical implementation of seismic design for piers and wharves with illustrative examples.
This course will provide an overview of 1 the history of development and conflicts of current codes and standards, 2 structural systems, 3 geotechnical considerations and soil-structure interaction; 4 design classification, 5 design approach based on performance and hazard levels, 6 design methods such as performance-based design, displacement-based design, and force-based design, 7 detailing considerations, and 8 ancillary components.
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3.1 Performance requirements
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ASCE - Seismic Design of Piers and Wharves | Engineering
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